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Volume: 01, Issue: 01, Pages: 1-2

Bioremediation: Harnessing biotechnology for a sustainable future

Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Biological Science, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: M. Mizanur Rahman, Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Biological Science, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh. Email: mmrahmanbtg79@hotmail.com.

doi: https://doi.org/10.69517/jber.2024.01.01.0001

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Received:
04 July 2024

Revised:
05 July 2024

Accepted:
05 July 2024

Published:
05 July 2024

Highlights

  • Bioremediation uses biological processes involving microbes, plants, and fungi to cleanse polluted environments.
  • ⁠Cyanobacteria are especially effective due to their ability to photosynthesize, fix nitrogen, and metabolize a range of pollutants, including heavy metals and hydrocarbons.
  • ⁠Advances in genetic engineering have improved their capabilities, allowing them to target and degrade complex pollutants.
  • Combining bioremediation with bio-augmentation and phytoremediation can enhance pollutant degradation and provide comprehensive environmental restoration.

Keywords

Bioremediation, Cyanobacteria, Phytoremediation, Genetic engineering, Environmental restoration

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Bioremediation, which uses biological processes to cleanse and heal polluted environments, offers a more sustainable alternative to standard remediation approaches. This field uses microbes, plants, and fungi to break down, convert, or sequester toxic pollutants in soil, water, and air (Al Mamun et al., 2024 popup link icon; Akter and Huq, 2020 popup link icon).

Among these biological entities, cyanobacteria stand out for their ecological resilience and diver’s metabolic capacities. Their capacity to photosynthesis, fix nitrogen, and metabolize a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic chemicals makes them excellent candidates for a variety of bioremediation applications (Huda et al., 2024 popup link icon).

These microbes flourish in polluted environments, decomposing substances including heavy metals, insecticides, and hydrocarbons. Their synthesis of extracellular polymeric compounds improves their ability to immobilize and sequester pollutants (Rahman et al., 2022 popup link icon).

Biotechnological approaches to bioremediation are constantly evolving in response to advances in genetic engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology. Scientists can improve cyanobacteria and other microorganisms’ natural abilities to degrade and detoxify pollutants by modifying their genetic makeup (Al Mamun et al., 2024 popup link icon). For instance, by introducing specific genes, microorganisms can target and degrade complex organic pollutants that would otherwise be resistant to biodegradation (Huq and Akter, 2021 popup link icon). Similarly, synthetic biology techniques can be used to create microbial consortiums with complementary metabolic pathways, resulting in synergistic effects that increase overall bioremediation efficiency.

Furthermore, combining bioremediation strategies with other biotechnological innovations, such as bioaugmentation and phytoremediation, shows great promise (Rana et al., 2022 popup link icon). Bioaugmentation constitutes the introduction of specialized microorganisms into contaminated sites to speed up the degradation of pollutants, whereas phytoremediation, which uses the plants to extract, stabilize, and degrade contaminants from soil and water. The combined use of these techniques can improve the efficacy of bioremediation efforts and provide a more comprehensive approach to environmental restoration (Hossain et al., 2022 popup link icon).

Numerous obstacles still exist in bioremediation research, despite notable advancements. Bioremediation techniques must be carefully evaluated and optimized due to the complexity of contaminated habitats, the unpredictability of pollutant kinds and concentrations, and the possibility of negative ecological effects. Additionally, the effective execution of bioremediation projects depends heavily on legal frameworks and public acceptance (Piwowarska et al., 2024 popup link icon).

The potential of biotechnological approaches to bioremediation to contribute to a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable environment appears more and more apparent as they continue to improve. By utilizing state-of-the-art biotechnological advancements in conjunction with the power of nature, we may solve some of the most important environmental issues of our day and create a more promising future.

Acknowledgments

None to declare.

Ethical approval statement

None to declare.

Data availability

Not applicable.

Informed consent statement

Not applicable.

Conflict of interest

The author declare no competing interests.

Authors’ contribution

Abdullah Al Mamun and M. Mizanur Rahman equally contributed to the design and writing of this editorial.

References

Akter S and Huq MA 2020. Biologically rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Sphingobium sp. MAH-11T and their antibacterial activity and mechanisms investigation against drug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, 48: 672-682. https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2020.1730390

Al Mamun A, Rahman MM, Huq MA, Rahman MM, Rana MR, Rahman ST, Khatun ML and Alam MK, 2024. Phytoremediation: a transgenic perspective in omics era. Transgenic Research, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11248-024-00393-x

Huda N, Rana MR, Huq MA, Al-Mamun A, Rahman ST, Alam MK and Rahman MM, 2024. Understanding vermicompost and organic manure interactions: impact on toxic elements, nitrification activity, comammox Nitrospira inopinata, and archaea/bacteria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 196(4): 355. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-024-12491-8

Hossain MS, Paul GK, Mahmud S, Saleh MA, Uddin MS, Dutta AK, Roy AK, AK Saha, Sheam MM, Ahmed S, Rahman MM, Paul DK and Biswas SK, 2022. Mixed dye degradation by Bacillus pseudomycoides and Acinetobacter haemolyticus isolated from industrial effluents: A combined affirmation with wetlab and in silico studies. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 15(9): 104078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2022.104078

Huq MA and Akter S, 2021. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial application of novel silver nanoparticles against drug-resistant pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella Enteritidis. Molecules, 26: 5996. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195996

Rahman M, Haque M, Huda Z, Huq N, Rauf MA, Fahim M, M. M. H., and Arif M, 2022. Microplastics and synthetic polymers in agricultural soils: biodegradation, analytical methods and their impact on environment. In: J Malik (Eds.), Advances in Bioremediation and Phytoremediation for Sustainable Soil Management: Principles, Monitoring and Remediation (pp. 261-281). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89984-4_17

Piwowarska D, Kiedrzyńska E and Jaszczyszyn K, 2024. A global perspective on the nature and fate of heavy metals polluting water ecosystems, and their impact and remediation. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2024.2317112

Rana R, Ferdous J, Rahman M, Rahman F, Huq A, Ali Y, Huda N, Mukhles MB and Rafi MH, 2022. Biosynthesis and chemical composition of nanomaterials in agricultural soil bioremediation: a review. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 19410: 730. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-10315-1

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